Missouri State Archives
Claiborne Fox Jackson, 1861
Claiborne Fox Jackson was born on April 4, 1806 in Fleming County, Kentucky. The family moved to Franklin, Howard County, Missouri in 1826, eventually settling in Saline County. First elected to the general assembly in 1842, he was named speaker of the house in 1844 and 1846. Senator Jackson was chair of the ways and means committee in 1848 when he presented the "Jackson Resolutions," urging the Missouri congressional delegation to call for extending the Missouri Compromise line into the territories.
Jackson was sworn in as Missouri’s 15th governor on January 3, 1861. A state convention was called in 1861 to decide whether Missouri would secede or remain in the Union. The assembly first met in Jefferson City on February 28, 1861. Jackson aligned himself with the pro-Southern majority and believed that the state convention would vote for secession. Instead, they vacated the offices of governor, lieutenant governor, secretary of state, and the assembly; appointed Hamilton Rowan Gamble as the provisional governor; and called for a statewide election in November.
Ignoring the convention order, Jackson declared Missouri a free republic and dissolved all ties with the Union on August 5, 1861. He unsuccessfully summoned the old assembly to meet in November (less than a quorum of either house responded) but they still passed a formal ordinance of secession and appointed senators and representatives to the Confederacy. On November 28, 1861, the Confederate States of America admitted Missouri. Jackson removed with the southern sympathizing members of the state government to southern Arkansas after the Battle of Pea Ridge.
Governor Jackson died of cancer on December 6, 1862 in a rooming house near Little Rock. He is interred in the Sappington Family Cemetery in Arrow Rock, Saline County, Missouri.
Records (1861) of Governor Claiborne Fox Jackson (1806-1862) consist of four items of correspondence.
Rights and Reproductions
Copyright is in the public domain. Preferred Citation: [Item description], [date]; Claiborne Fox Jackson, 1861; Office of Governor, Record Group 3.17; Missouri State Archives, Jefferson City.
How to Use This Collection
The official title lists dates of service from inauguration to end of term. Records (1861) refer to the date range of materials included within the collection. The dates may not match. All references to places are within the state of Missouri unless indicated, and county is specified when known. The spelling of proper names varies greatly. When correct spelling could not be determined the original spelling was retained. Officeholders are Missouri officials unless noted (U.S. Senator, U.S. Secretary of State, U.S. Attorney General, U.S. Supreme Court, and et cetera). State Representatives are referred to as Representative. U.S. Representatives are noted with the title Congressman.
The collection finding aid provides information pertaining to additional Jackson material held by the following institutions: Kansas City Public Library, Missouri Valley Special Collections; Missouri History Museum, St. Louis; University of Missouri, Elmer Ellis Library, Columbia; and the State Historical Society of Missouri, Columbia.